What is PPA/PPV

Positive Pressure Ventilation, or PPV as it is commonly known, is a technique within both industrial and firefighting applications that uses air as a tool to control the hostile environment inside an enclosed structure. A variation, called Positive Pressure Attack (PPA), is the use of positive pressure ventilation during the attack phase of firefighting specifically.  Small electric and gasoline-powered fans (Tempest Power BlowersTM) are used to replace a hostile interior environment with fresh, cool ambient air. The most common blowers range in size from 18″ to 27″ (460mm to 690mm) in diameter and deliver from 7,000 to 24,000 CFM (11,900 m3/hr to 40,600 m3/hr).

Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) was first developed in the United States in the 1960’s and was used on a limited basis by progressive fire departments. In the early 1990’s, information about the use and applications of PPV became widely available and research was conducted to study the benefits it offered to firefighters. Today, PPV is an accepted firefighting technique and is used by fire departments and fire brigades around the world.

Protecting your personnel from hazardous environments is vital. Effectively ventilating toxic gases and smoke from fires, as well as harmful dust, fumes and other contaminates in industrial applications, will make your work environment safer.

Two ventilation techniques are most effective for achieving this goal: Positive Pressure Ventilation (PPV) and Negative Pressure Ventilation (NPV). PPV has changed firefighting worldwide and is increasingly popular in industrial applications. First adopted in the U.S.A., it has become a standard technique in Europe and Asia, replacing the use of NPV.


Other PPV Applications

shipsRemoval of Smoke from Ships and Boats
Positive Pressure Ventilation is very effective for ventilating compartmentalized structures such as ship holds. Interior spaces can be cleared in a controlled manner by using sequential ventilation techniques.

commercialCommercial/Industrial Decontamination
PPV can be used to ventilate contaminated/toxic environments or dry hazardous spills. Multiple blowers can be used to ventilate large buildings with oversized openings.

industrialIndustrial Smoke, Dust and Fume Removal
PPV techniques can be used to ventilate dangerous and/or offensive fumes caused by welding, adhesives and coatings. These fumes can be removed with Tempest Smooth Bore Ducting without contaminating adjacent areas.

aircraftAircraft Fires
PPV offers the fastest and most effective method for clearing smoke, heat, and gases from passenger and cargo aircraft. The interior of an aircraft can be ventilated in only 60 to 90 seconds, improving evacuation procedures and allowing rescue personnel faster, safer entry.

Confined Spaces
PPV can ventilate microenvironments such as tanks, pipelines and tunnels by using the blower’s massive air velocity to push out the stagnant air, replacing it with fresh, cool air.


PPA/PPV Training and Material

Tempest has teamed up with some of the most respected and well-known names in ventilation to offer an extensive list of experience, research and test based PPA/PPV educational materials to help train any Firefighter or Fire Department. Much of our library on Positive Pressure Ventilation and Attack can be found under the Training and Education page found within our Resource Library linked at the top. Additional ventilation information, like that involving our MVU®, can also be found under our Resource Library.

Some of the comprehensive educational materials you’ll find on our site here and on www.positivepressuretraining.com (a site proudly sponsored by Tempest) include:

Complete Training Packages
PPA (Positive Pressure Attack) Training System – The PPA Training System is an auto-run PowerPoint Program based on the popular training classes presented by Battalion Chiefs (Retired) Kriss Garcia and Reinhard Kauffmann of the Salt Lake City, Utah, Fire Department. Material in this package covers both PPA and PPV; all of which is derived from more than 12 years of study, testing and experience. The package is available as an independent study or classroom presentation and includes an auto-run CD/DVD PPA Video and ten student workbooks.

Hands-On Training
Due in large to the significant contributions made by Battalion Chiefs (Retired) Kriss Garcia and Reinhard Kauffmann, many trainers around the US and the rest of the world regularly hold live, hands-on positive pressure ventilation and attack training. If you or your department wants a hands-on training experience, contact Tempest at 800.346.2143 or response@tempest.us.com to be referred to the nearest certified training school.

Online – Digital Simulation
Tempest offers access to a few, 100% free simulation programs which are designed to take students through a near real-life fire experience and the correct application of Positive Pressure Attack (PPA).

Publications – Audio/Video

BOOK – Positive Pressure Attack for Ventilation and Firefighting – Garcia / Kauffmann
Learn how PPA has changed firefighting with this book by Battalion Chiefs (Retired) Kriss Garcia and Reinhard Kauffmann, with Ray Schelble, of the Salt Lake City Fire Department.

VIDEO – The Wind Has Changed (2010) Garcia / Kauffmann
This four-hour introduction to Positive Pressure Attack (PPA), presented by Battalion Chiefs (Retired) Kriss Garcia and Reinhard Kauffmann, uses live fire scene video, incident case studies and scientific data to walk students through the theories, tactics and applications of Positive Pressure Attack.